Recently, we have released our custom cloud-ready images of syslog-ng. Continuing the cloud native integration of syslog-ng this article explains how to apply these images to solve an important Kubernetes use-case: the collection of Kubernetes metadata.

syslog-ng has a long history for being a trusted tool that provides unprecedented performance, stability and flexibility, both when deployed in a collector or an aggregator role. This Kubernetes integration bridges the gap between cloud native and enterprise deployments, especially when they operate side-by-side.

This post shows you how to install this syslog-ng image using the AxoSyslog Helm charts and use it to send Kubernetes logs into OpenSearch, as a means to demonstrate how it all works.

If you are planning to try AxoSyslog in production we recommend doing that via Logging operator that supports syslog-ng as a aggregator agent since version 4.0

syslog-ng kubernetes() source

In the syslog-ng configuration, the entities where syslog-ng reads or receives logs from are called sources. The kubernetes() source collects logs from the Kubernetes cluster where syslog-ng is running. It follows the design of CRI logging, reading container logs from /var/log/containers or /var/log/pods.

source s_kubernetes {
    base-dir("/var/log/containers")  # Optional. Where to look for the containers' log files. Default: "/var/log/containers"
    cluster-name("k8s")              # Optional. The name of the cluster, used in formatting the HOST field. Default: "k8s"
    prefix(".k8s.")                  # Optional. Prefix for the metadata name-value pairs' names. Default: ".k8s."
    key-delimiter(".")               # Optional. Delimiter for multi-depth name-value pairs' names. Default: "."

Thanks to syslog-ng’s versatile python binding support, after reading the logs from the container log files, the kubernetes() source enriches them with various metadata, acquired via the kubernetes python client.

Syslog-ng 4.1.1 retrieves the following metadata fields:

syslog-ng name-value pair source
.k8s.namespace_name Container log file name.
.k8s.pod_name Container log file name.
.k8s.pod_uuid Container log file name or python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.
.k8s.container_name Container log file name or python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.
.k8s.container_id Container log file name.
.k8s.container_image python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.
.k8s.container_hash python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.
.k8s.docker_id python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.
.k8s.labels.* python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.
.k8s.annotations.* python kubernetes.client.CoreV1Api.

You can find more details on how these are calculated in the source codes of syslog-ng’s kubernetes SCL, KubernetesAPIEnrichment, and kubernetes-client’s CoreV1Api. We are working on extending this list with even more fields, like namespace labels, so stay tuned!

axosyslog-collector Helm chart

Helm is the package manager of Kubernetes. It helps to define, install, and upgrade even the most complex Kubernetes applications. Axoflow’s axosyslog-charts repository houses the axosyslog-collector Helm chart, which we will use for demonstrating the kubernetes() source. The chart uses the Alpine-based syslog-ng docker image built by Axoflow. The axosyslog-collector is a rudimentary chart for collecting Kubernetes logs, it can:

  • forward logs conforming to RFC3164 via TCP/UDP connections, or
  • send them to OpenSearch. 

If you need a complete Kubernetes logging solution, we recommend checking the Logging Operator.

Demo: Sending Kubernetes logs to OpenSearch

The following tutorial shows you how to send Kubernetes logs to OpenSearch.


You will need a Kubernetes cluster. We used minikube with docker driver and Helm. We used a Ubuntu 22.04 (amd64) machine, but it should work on any system that can run minikube (2 CPUs, 2GB of free memory, 20GB of free disk space).

The OpenSearch service needs a relatively large mmap count setting, so set it to at least 262144, for example:

sysctl -w vm.max_map_count=262144

Generate logs

Install kube-logging/log-generator to generate logs.

helm repo add kube-logging
helm repo update
helm install --generate-name --wait kube-logging/log-generator

Check that it’s running:

kubectl get pods

The output should look like:

NAME                                        READY   STATUS        RESTARTS       AGE
log-generator-1681984863-5946c559b9-ftrrn   1/1     Running       0              8s

Set up OpenSearch

Install an OpenSearch cluster with Helm:

helm repo add opensearch
helm repo update
helm install --generate-name --wait opensearch/opensearch
helm install --generate-name --wait opensearch/opensearch-dashboards

Now you should have 5 pods. Check that they exist:

kubectl get pods

The output should look like:

NAME                                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
log-generator-1681984863-5946c559b9-ftrrn           1/1     Running   0          3m39s
opensearch-cluster-master-0                         1/1     Running   0          81s
opensearch-cluster-master-1                         1/1     Running   0          81s
opensearch-cluster-master-2                         1/1     Running   0          81s
opensearch-dashboards-1681999620-59f64f98f7-bjwwh   1/1     Running   0          44s

Forward the 5601 port of the OpenSearch Dashboards service (replace the name of the pod with your pod).

kubectl port-forward opensearch-dashboards-1681999620-59f64f98f7-bjwwh 8080:5601

The output should look like:

Forwarding from -> 5601
Forwarding from [::1]:8080 -> 5601

You can login to the dashboard at http://localhost:8080 with admin/admin. You will soon create an Index Pattern here, but first you have to send some logs from syslog-ng.

Set up axosyslog-collector

First, add the AxoSyslog Helm repository:

helm repo add axosyslog
helm repo update

Create a YAML file (axoflow-demo.yaml) to configure the collector.

  # Use the nightly build of
  tag: nightly

  version: "4.1"
      # Collect kubernetes logs
      enabled: true
    # Send logs to OpenSearch
      - address: "opensearch-cluster-master"
        index: "test-axoflow-index"
        user: "admin"
        password: "admin"
          # Do not validate the server's TLS certificate.
          peerVerify: false
        # Send the syslog fields + the metadata from .k8s.* in JSON format
        template: "$(format-json --scope rfc5424 --exclude DATE --key ISODATE @timestamp=${ISODATE} k8s=$(format-json .k8s.* --shift-levels 2 --exclude .k8s.log))"

Check what the syslog-ng.conf file will look like with your custom values:

helm template -f axoflow-demo.yaml -s templates/config.yaml axosyslog/axosyslog-collector

The output should look like:

# Source: axosyslog-collector/templates/config.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
  labels: axosyslog-collector-0.1.0 axosyslog-collector release-name "4.1.1" Helm
  name: release-name-axosyslog-collector
  syslog-ng.conf: |
    @version: 4.1
    @include "scl.conf"

    options {

    log {
      source { kubernetes(); };
      destination {
          template("$(format-json --scope rfc5424 --exclude DATE --key ISODATE @timestamp=${ISODATE} k8s=$(format-json .k8s.* --shift-levels 2 --exclude .k8s.log))")

Install the axosyslog-collector chart:

helm install --generate-name --wait -f axoflow-demo.yaml axosyslog/axosyslog-collector

The output should look like:

NAME: axosyslog-collector-1682002179
LAST DEPLOYED: Thu Apr 20 16:49:39 2023
NAMESPACE: default
STATUS: deployed
1. Watch the axosyslog-collector-1682002179 container start.

Check your pods:

kubectl get pods --namespace=default -l app=axosyslog-collector-1682002179 -w
kubectl get pods

The output should look like:

NAME                                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
log-generator-1681984863-5946c559b9-ftrrn           1/1     Running   0          13m
opensearch-cluster-master-0                         1/1     Running   0          11m
opensearch-cluster-master-1                         1/1     Running   0          11m
opensearch-cluster-master-2                         1/1     Running   0          11m
opensearch-dashboards-1681999620-59f64f98f7-bjwwh   1/1     Running   0          10m
axosyslog-collector-1682002179-pjlkn                1/1     Running   0          6s

Check the logs in OpenSearch

Head back to OpenSearch Dashboards, and create an Index Pattern called “test-axoflow-index”: http://localhost:8080/app/management/opensearch-dashboards/indexPatterns. At Step 2, set the Time field to “@timestamp”.

OpenSearch create index pattern for syslog messages screenshot

Now you can see your logs on the Discover view http://localhost:8080/app/discover. Opening the detailed view for a log entry shows you the fields sent to OpenSearch.

OpenSearch Kubernetes log messages collected with the AxoSyslog syslog-ng distribution
Kubernetes metadata collected with the AxoSyslog syslog-ng distribution


From this post you have learned:

  • How to install a syslog-ng log collector using our AxoSyslog charts, which is one of the first elements of our new open source project, the AxoSyslog cloud native syslog-ng distribution.
  • Configure it to send your logs into OpenSearch.
  • Learned how AxoSyslog enriches your log messages with Kubernetes metadata.


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